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A Simplified Approach for Implementing Capital Gain Tax in Stock Marketing
Sivarajah Mylevaganam
Open Journal of Applied Sciences Vol.6 No.13 2016-12-26
Abstract
The sustainability of a country inevitably depends on proper taxation system. To date, there are many taxes implemented by the ruling authorities of a country. The taxes that are sourced from stock markets or share markets are paramount to better govern a country. The capital gain tax (CGT), which is incurred in disposing the shares or stocks owned by an investor or an institution, is one of the taxes implemented in stock markets. Though in the past many attempts have been made to properly streamline the CGT, the methodologies or the approaches used in the implementation of CGT, even in the United States, are not well-grounded from a scientific point of view. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified approach based on the assumption that the CGT is implemented on a yearly basis is proposed. The CGT is calculated for each stock owned by an investor or an institution. The approach is implemented using an open access platform: AMP (Apache-MySQL-PHP). Subsequently, the proposed approach is tested using some hypothetical data. The proposed approach, which is easy-to-use, practical and un-biased, is of use to any country that is willing to progress towards the sustainability. Moreover, the proposed approach with the current technology will enhance the developing nations which have large size of informal economy, on designing and implementing effective tax policies and administrations.
Keywords
Stock Market, Capital Gain Tax, Opportunity Cost, Taxation System, Database, MySQL, PHP, Share Market, Economy, Sustainability
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The Spatial Sensitivity Analysis of Evapotranspiration using Penman-Monteith Method at Grid Scale
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Chittaranjan Ray
Journal of Geographic Information System Vol.8 No.1 2016-02-29
Abstract
The need to allocate the existing water in a sustainable manner, even with the projected population growth, has made to assess the consumptive use or evapotranspiration (ET), which determines the irrigation demand. As underscored in the literature, Penman-Monteith method which is a combination of aerodynamic and energy balance method is widely used and accepted as the method of estimation of ET. However, the application of Penman-Monteith relies on many climate parameters such as relative humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed. Therefore, there exists a need to determine the parameters that are most sensitive and correlated with dependent variable (i.e., ET), to strengthen the knowledge base. However, the sensitivity of ET using Penman-Monteith is oftentimes estimated using meteorological data from climate stations. Such estimation of sensitivity may vary spatially and thus there exists a need to estimate sensitivity of ET spatially. Thus, in this paper, based on One-AT-A-Time (OAT) method, a spatial sensitivity tool that can geographically encompass all the best available climate datasets to produce ET and its sensitivity at different spatial scales is developed. The spatial tool is developed as a Python toolbox in ArcGIS using Python, an open source programming language, and the ArcPy site-package of ArcGIS. The developed spatial tool is demonstrated using the meteorological data from Automated Weather Data Network in Nebraska in 2010. To summarize the outcome of the sensitivity analysis using OAT method, sensitivity indices are developed for each raster cell. The demonstration of the tool shows that, among the considered parameters, the computed ET using Penman-Monteith is highly sensitive to solar radiation followed by temperature for the state of Nebraska, as depicted by the sensitivity index. The computed sensitivity index of wind speed and the relative humidity are not that significant compared to the sensitivity index of solar radiation and temperature.
Keywords
Evapotranspiration, Penman-Monteith Method, Aerodynamic Method, Energy Balance Method, Python, ArcPy, ArcGIS, Spatial Scale, Geoprocessing, Python Toolbox, Sensitivity Analysis, One-AT-A-Time, Sensitivity Index
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A Spatial Evapotranspiration Tool at Grid Scale
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Chittaranjan Ray
Open Journal of Applied Sciences Vol.06 No.01 2016-01-28
Abstract
The drastic decline in groundwater table and many other detrimental effects in meeting irrigation demand, and the projected population growth have force to evaluate consumptive use or evapotranspiration (ET), the rate of liquid water transformation to vapor from open water, bare soil, and vegetation, which determines the irrigation demand. As underscored in the literature, Penman-Monteith method which is based on aerodynamic and energy balance method is widely used and accepted as the method of estimation of ET. However, the estimation of ET is oftentimes carried out using meteorological data from climate stations. Therefore, such estimation of ET may vary spatially and thus there exists a need to estimate ET spatially at different spatial or grid scales/resolutions. Thus, in this paper, a spatial tool that can geographically encompass all the best available climate datasets to produce ET at different spatial scales is developed. The spatial tool is developed as a Python toolbox in ArcGIS using Python, an open source programming language, and the ArcPy site-package of ArcGIS. The developed spatial tool is demonstrated using the meteorological data from Automated Weather Data Network in Nebraska in 2010.
Keywords
Evapotranspiration, Penman-Monteith Method, Aerodynamic Method, Energy Balance Method, Python, ArcPy, ArcGIS, Spatial Scale, Geoprocessing, Python Toolbox
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The Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability Due to Leaching of Chemicals: The Review of Attenuation Factor
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Chittaranjan Ray
Open Journal of Soil Science Vol.6 No.1 2016-01-26
Abstract
To assess the groundwater vulnerability due to leaching of chemicals, the groundwater system in the unsaturated zone is characterized by conceptual models that are further extended and refined with more detailed mathematical models to understand the governing physical processes in detail. However, due to lack of data and uncertainty level, an intermediate transition through index based models is researched. The attenuation factor (AF) approach, which works under the assumption that the chemicals degrade following a first-order kinetics and determines the fraction of the chemicals that goes to groundwater table, is one of the index based models that has been widely used due to its simplicity. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the research works done using the AF approach, to outline the future research needs. Furthermore, the mathematical implementation of the AF approach and the associated uncertainty levels is explained through an example and MATLAB source code.
Keywords
Attenuation Factor, Index Based Models, Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment, Uncertainty Level, Volatization, MATLAB
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Easy-to-Use Look-Up Hydrologic Design Charts of a Soak-Away Rain Garden in Singapore
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Ting Fong May Chui, Jiangyong Hu
Open Journal of Civil Engineering Vol.5 No.3 2015-07-21
Abstract
As catchments become urbanized due to population growth the impervious surfaces created by buildings and pavements in the expense of permeable soil, depressions, and vegetation cause rainwater to flow rapidly over the landscape. To mitigate the adverse impact of urbanization such as increased flooding and depleted groundwater recharge, around the world, several best management practices, in other words, green infrastructures have been practised, and soak-away rain garden is one of them. However, to have a rapid assessment of soak-away rain gardens on a range of potential hydrologic conditions (e.g., size of the soak-away rain garden, saturated hydraulic conductivity of the in-situ soil, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the filter media), hydrologic design guidelines or design charts of soak-away rain gardens that are specific for local conditions are not currently available for many regions including Singapore. Thus, in this paper, with a design hyetograph of 3-month average rainfall intensities of Singapore, hydrologic design charts, especially, design charts on overflow volume (as a % of total runoff volume) of soak-away rain gardens are established for a range of potential hydrologic conditions by developing a mathematical model based on Richard’s equation using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element analysis and solver software package for various physics and engineering applications. These easy-to-use look-up hydrologic design charts will be of great utility for local managers in the design of soak-away rain gardens.
Keywords
COMSOL Multiphysics, Soak-Away Rain Garden, Hydrologic Design Charts, Overflow Volume
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Ecohydrologically Driven Catchment Evaluation and Prioritization
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Raghavan Srinivasan, Vijay P. Singh
Open Journal of Applied Sciences Vol.5 No.7 2015-07-15
Abstract
This study develops information based on index, and termed hydro-ecological-index, to represent the need of a riverine ecosystem characterized through a biologically relevant flow regime. The flow regime is defined by a set of parameters, called Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. These parameters are predicted at the catchment scale by a hydrologic model, called Soil and Water Assessment Tool. Then the Maximum Entropy Ordered Weighted Averaging method is employed to aggregate non-commensurable biologically relevant flow regimes to develop hydro-ecological- index at the catchment scale. The resulting index reflects the variability of the need of the riverine ecosystem at catchment scale and thus different catchments can be evaluated and compared.
Keywords
Entropy, Principle of Maximum Entropy, Riverine Ecosystem, Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration, Maximum Entropy Ordered Weighted Averaging, Soil and Water Assessment Tool
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Long Term Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Calibration from an Ecohydrology Perspective
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Raghavan Srinivasan, Vijay P. Singh
Open Journal of Applied Sciences Vol.5 No.7 2015-07-15
Abstract
The performance on prediction by mathematical models which represent the conceived image of a system such as hydrology is oftentimes represented through calibration and verification processes. Oftentimes a best fit between observed and predicted flows is obtained through correlation coefficient (R2) and the Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) by minimizing the average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the observed versus simulated flows. However, these days, a new paradigm is emerging wherein accounting for the flow variability for the protection of freshwater biodiversity and maintenance of goods and services that rivers provide is paramount. Therefore, from an ecohydrology perspective, it is not clear if the existing method of model calibration meets the needs of the riverine ecosystem at its best. Thus, this study investigates and proposes a methodology using entropy theory to gage the calibration of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) from an ecohydrology perspective characterized by the natural flow-regime paradigm: Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration.
Keywords
Principle of Maximum Entropy, Ecohydrology, Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration, Maximum Entropy Ordered Weighted Averaging, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Calibration
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Modeling 3D Ex-Filtration Process of a Soak-Away Rain Garden
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Ting Fong May Chui, Jiangyong Hu
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection Vol.3 No.3 2015-05-11
Abstract
This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics to understand the 3D ex-filtration process of a soak-away rain garden. With a design hyetograph of 3-month average rainfall intensities of Singapore, it is found that the average vertical ex-filtration rate that is obtained by dividing the average vertical ex-filtration (drained through bottom of the soak-away rain garden, averaged over the simulation period = 720 min, and expressed in m3) by the surface area of the soak-away rain garden and the simulation time step is almost constant regardless of increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) of the in-situ soil and the surface area of the soak-away rain garden as a percentage of catchment area. However, as depth to groundwater table which is measured from bottom of the filter media increases, in between 0.5 m and 1 m of depth to groundwater table, the average vertical ex-filtration rate decreases significantly (by around 15 - 20 mm/hr) and the decrease is almost twice, compared with that between 1 m and 1.5 m of depth to groundwater table. Furthermore, this study shows that for a given K of in-situ, K of filter media, and depth to groundwater table, as the surface area of the soak-away rain garden increases, the horizontal flow coefficient which is defined as the ratio between total horizontal ex-filtration (drained through sides of the soak-away rain garden, summed over the simulation period, and expressed in m3) and total vertical ex-filtration (drained through bottom of the soak-away rain garden, summed over the simulation period, and expressed in m3) decreases. Moreover, for a given surface area of the soak-away rain garden, K of in-situ, and depth to groundwater table, the horizontal flow coefficient decreases as K of the filter media increases. However, it is found that for a given surface area of the soak-away rain garden, K of in-situ, and K of filter media, the horizontal flow coefficient increases as depth to groundwater table increases.
Keywords
COMSOL Multiphysics, 3D Ex-Filtration, Soak-Away Rain Garden, Average Vertical Ex-Filtration Rate, Horizontal Flow Coefficient
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